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An incredible deal has been written about and made a lot of in different archaeology books about how and why our technologically primitive ancestors were able to carve out, transport and erect massive multi-ton stone blocks into megalithic monuments of well, monumental dimension. The implication is that since there is no doubting the existence of these structures, our ancestors should of in actual fact possessed a sophisticated know-how or had help from those who did (i.e. – ‘ancient astronauts’). That runs opposite to the standard mannequin of scholarly archaeology. However the questions remain.

Perhaps I’d higher say what I mean by massive multi-ton stone blocks. I imply stones which are at least a number of tons in weight, as much as the biggest known carved (but nonetheless in-situ and unused) stone block weighing in at roughly 1250 tons. That is not the file however for there may be, apparently, a stele base in China that weighs in at 16,250 tons. I mean these are stones that aren’t trivial to toss around, even in the present day. And while not all major continents and international locations have megalithic stone monuments, like North America (USA & Canada) or Australia (together with New Zealand) that nonetheless leaves a number of locations, and well known locations, that do.

How and why these megaliths were constructed isn’t any trivial matter. For our ancestors to go to such lengths and expend such efforts, nicely these stone monuments had been clearly crucial to them, and it is important to us to figure out how and why they did it. Utilizing large stone blocks as a substitute of wood or even small stone blocks or bricks will need to have served a purpose despite the higher hardships involved. So, why did our ancient ancestors want large stones; and how did they handle them

As to the why, presumably, for starters, in the event you determine to make use of stone, then it is necessary enough a fabric serving a goal(s) that necessitates lasting for all practical functions an ‘eternity’. In the event you build one thing to final, a minimum of again then, you utilize stone, the larger the better. But for what goal did the ancients need such megalithic giants

Issues Arising: Goal
These historical societies or cultures spent an terrible lot of assets to build things that were relatively peripheral to their basic wants. The Easter Islanders might survive without those Moai statues; historical Egypt would still have been a ‘superpower’ even without these pyramids, the Giza Sphinx, large statues of some New Kingdom pharaohs (like Ramesses II – typically referred to as Ramesses the great), stele and obelisks. The Parthenon in Athens was only a shrine to one of the Greek deities (Athena), and similar observations could be extended to the 1000’s of different monumental megalithic temples and monuments all over the world which were mainly ceremonial in function.

It is tough to figure out how Stonehenge contributed to the fundamental survival needs of the local inhabitants – you don’t need to construct one thing of that magnitude just to tell you what season it’s! If you could mark, say the Summer time Solstice, all you want have is a historically and permanently well marked and easily recognized Point A, where you’ll be able to observe some fixed structure like a rock on the Horizon, that is Point B, and when the Solar arises instantly over Point B, that’s the longest day of the year. There’s no need to have interaction in any form of backbreaking toil or construction whatever.

If a society can afford to spend effort and time and money on secondary projects, say like in trendy society various public art works in comparison with major initiatives like roads (transport), colleges (education) and hospitals (well being care), then you must conclude that that society was nicely off on condition that they may divert basic resources from main tasks to undertake initiatives of a secondary nature. Both that, or that which seems to us as relatively trivial or unimportant like Stonehenge or Carnac (Brittany, France) or these Easter Island statues or the Sphinx actually held a primary perform incomprehensible to us but which rivalled in importance housing and insuring ample food supplies and comparable issues vital to their day-to-day survival.

Points Arising: Logistics
There’s also the logistics drawback. You want a big workforce that needed to be fed and clothed and housed and cared for, particularly fed. There wasn’t precisely a close by supermarket where infinite supplies could possibly be bought. Additional, whereas employed on these quarrying, transporting and development initiatives the staff couldn’t be gainfully employed elsewhere to provide fundamentals like looking and gathering for food or even tending to domesticated livestock and agricultural crops. The employees could not have been used for serving in the army, or another helpful and obligatory activity. All of this carving, transporting and construction weren’t just busy work designed to keep the rabble off the streets and out of bother, and slave labour wasn’t usually in vogue either, contrary to many in style Hollywood pictures. In fact in the case of the Giza Sphinx, it was carved, however wasn’t transported, nor constructed per say. Nonetheless, the logistics in caving that large stone statue from a rock outcrop would have been huge, and the explanation(s) for doing so of huge importance to the powers-that-be.

Points Arising: Ways and Means: The How!
Though our focus and curiosity is usually on the development part, as in how was that finished, that is often only one-third of the arduous yards. Take those 2.Three million blocks that make up the great Pyramid at Giza. Phase One: every block needed to be carved to dimension. You simply didn’t hack out rocks at random and put them in place. That carving alone is difficult yakka and helped sustain a state of full employment. Onerous yakka Phase Two was transporting these carved blocks from the assorted quarries – some native, some not – to action metropolis, the Giza Plateau. Extra full employment. The how in Section One and Two is not often all that mysterious – just bloody exhausting backbreaking work. Anyway, back to the development – Part Three.

To me the foremost thriller isn’t so much the way you get something from the horizontal to the vertical, like an obelisk, (that was demonstrated on the NOVA Tv sequence “Secrets of Lost Empires”), however how you get an enormous multi-ton stone block raised straight up, say 20 to 30 to forty or more feet to act as a lintel, like these at Stonehenge or on all these Greco-Roman and Egyptian temples, like say the Parthenon. One can at all times conceive of building sand or dirt ramps to haul massive lintels upwards into place, hence removing the sand or dirt after-the-reality, however for those who give it some thought, such infrastructure is stone island uk official online store a much more labour intensive and an all-spherical major venture in its personal right. For instance, constructing a sand ramp to haul these multi-ton stone blocks for the Giza pyramids would require a better volume of fabric to be put into place (and naturally later eliminated) than that of the volume of fabric required to build the pyramid in question in the first place. In fact if the venture is that necessary, and if there’s just no other method – nicely there’s all the time these hard choices.

For instance for example of just how unhealthy our knowledge of our distant historic ancestors really is, here is a trilogy of extracts from classical scholar Nigel Rodgers in his text “The Historical Greek World: Individuals and Locations” (2010):

“[T]he Greeks relied on their intellectual powers and their remarkably expert craftsmanship to erect their buildings. Few particulars survive of their actual building methods, however.”

“Cranes have been virtually certainly used to assist increase the masonry up to the temples throughout building, although no traces of such machinery have been discovered.”

“How the Athenians assembled these temples, and certainly housed and fed the massive, extremely skilled workforce required to build them, so effectively is unknown.”

So, now let us take a look at options as offered in some alt-archaeological texts.
One principle typically seen in alt-archaeological tomes is that these large blocks didn’t start out as huge blocks, just like a brick does not begin out as a brick, but relatively they have been poured into place, in a mould, like concrete or cement. Sorry, however fashionable petrologists’ might easily detect such. Typically the truth is the quarry from the place the stone originated will be precisely identified, though that often raises the question then of transport, since the distances twixt quarry site and construction site may be a whole bunch of miles. That’s a difficulty that applies to Stonehenge in addition to among the stonework for the Giza pyramids.

If you actually wish to go far-out, star-scout, let’s strive antigravity! Anti-gravity is just obtainable in a single kind, darkish energy. Darkish power is that mysterious antigravity power that is inflicting the increasing Universe to keep on increasing at ever sooner and sooner rates, in defiance of gravity which ought to sluggish the enlargement fee down. Alas, darkish power, which while dominant over the dimensions of your entire Universe, is trivial domestically relative to Earth’s intense gravity field.

Alt-archaeology texts are filled with references to sound energy that levitates (negates gravity) and thus large blocks of stone may be floated around and put into place even with just the oomph of an infant, just by making the suitable sound at the appropriate level.. Sound after all will be focused. Everyone knows and admire the science of acoustics in theatres. Sound can shatter objects, well not less than relatively fragile objects like wine glasses when subjected to the skilled projections of the trained human voice (or equal). Nevertheless, in case you crunch the numbers, the power required to negate gravity is manner outside the realm of which sound energy can muster. Considering the cacophony of sounds the human race produces each day, you’d think that all the related components would come together somewhere, sometime and ‘just so’ as to produce levitation in one thing, levitation noticed and photographed for the record. Alas, not so.

Jigsaw Puzzles
In some constructions, it is not just a matter of manipulating huge however irregular stone blocks but fitting them collectively like a jigsaw puzzle, results which might be instantly apparent at websites world wide, like those from the Incan Empire. Precision carving in stone utilizing solely other stone or copper tools just isn’t simple by any stretch of the imagination. It is not easy; it’s extraordinarily exhausting and time consuming work. Double that when all of your blocks aren’t an ordinary square block size and form.

What Do Our Ancestors Say
Pity that though the ancients left all method of images behind of their day by day lives and tradition, I find it wonderful that despite all of these multi-thousands of photos from ancient Greece, Rome, Egypt, the Americas, etc. not one exhibits an actual half-completed or partly constructed monument, like a pyramid, or a temple like the Parthenon that is below building, or whatever. If you adored this write-up and you would certainly like to receive additional information pertaining to Official kindly browse through the web-site. That is extremely anomalous IMHO, although there are pictures of historic Egyptians transporting huge stone blocks.

Nevertheless, even a few of these ancient cultures had been puzzled as to how their even more historic ancestors achieved these megalithic ‘missions unimaginable’.

There’s something very odd when the pure descendents of ‘primitive’ natives resort to tales akin to sci-fi or science-fantasy to account for a way their ancestors constructed, transported and erected large stone monoliths.

Easter Islanders say that their Moai statues walked by themselves from quarry to their ultimate resting (really standing) place. Who am I to argue with first hand or on-the-spot observations, besides Thor Heyerdahl’s “Aku-Aku” workforce accomplished the identical with much less elegant but with pure grunt energy. Walking stone statues are just a bit too far into the “Twilight Zone” for comfort. Truly for some cause Easter Islanders at some point downed their stone tools and abandoned their statue constructions for reasons not totally clear apart from priorities altered. The abandoned unfinished statues can nonetheless be seen immediately, lying in place, now lengthy neglected.

Also within the Pacific area, Nan Modal is an historical metropolis of about 0.75 sq. kilometres off the coast of the island of Pohnpei in what’s today termed Micronesia. The city is comprised of synthetic islands criss-crossed by canals, and thus usually referred to as the Venice of the Pacific. These ‘islands’ nonetheless are constructed up of massive megalithic stone walls as much as 25 feet high. How so Nicely the stones were carried on site on the backs of dragons apparently. To be trustworthy, that makes as much sense as anything else.

I famous above that allegedly sound could levitate huge stone blocks. That principle or statement is present in each South America and historical Egypt – massive stones are somehow lifted and transported by sound. I still think that’s extremely suspect and I think scientists would need an actual trendy-day demonstration. I do know I would.

Tentative Conclusions
As I noted above, it is not the caving or the transport that’s the real concern, nor going from the horizontal to the vertical that’s an actual downside, rather the difficulty is lifting large stones straight up that I especially puzzle over.

The puzzlement pertains to our own use of stones in constructing projects. We might I assume, if we wished to, build our buildings out of mega-ton blocks of stone. But we do not. Your home, if it contains constructing stones in any respect, are stones which might be probably akin to weights of just a number of pounds, maybe dozens of pounds; hardly tons.

So do we have a serious mystery here Effectively sure, particularly when in comparison with modern society as famous instantly above. In our modern high-tech age, after we do use stone as a development materials, it’s in manageable bits and items. We don’t construct our houses or office buildings or ballparks or monuments out of multi-ton to multi-hundred ton stone blocks as the ancients did. But when responsibility called, like when Abu Simbel needed to be relocated to the next elevation when the Aswan High Dam was constructed giving rise to Lake Nasser and the flooding of the historical site, even utilizing fashionable expertise it was nonetheless a major and massive effort.

A Potential Solution
Maybe we are able to kill two anomalous birds with one hypothetical stone.

Common One: As we be aware, from the Americas (Mesoamerica and South America at least); throughout Europe and the Close to and Middle East, Egypt and different elements of Africa, even unto Asia and the Pacific region, there are historical megalithic constructions using stone blocks within the multi mega-ton range. How did the ancients carve, transport, raise and position such huge stone blocks

Universal Two: Additionally all over the world, there is a common theme of giants, from the Cyclopes in Greco-Roman cultures, to Biblical giants to – nicely you title the culture and I’ll assure they could have giants as a core ingredient of their mythologies. For samplers, here is only a partial checklist of giants. Well there’s Angrboda (Norse), Argos (Greek), Balor (Irish), Biloko (Zaire), Bungisngis (Philippines), the Cyclopes (Greek), Geryon (Greek), the Gigantes (Greek), Goliath (Biblical), Grendel (Anglo-Saxon), the Hecatonchires (Greek), Hrungnir (Norse), Humbaba (Mesopotamia), the Nephilim (Biblical), Skrymir (Norse), Suttung (Norse), Talos (Greek), the Titans (Greek), and Ymir (Norse). Further, you’ve got all manner of big trolls and ogres (Scandinavian), varied large apemen like the Yeti and Bigfoot/Sasquatch and numerous others, as well as the Giants of Cornwall (led by Gogmagog).

Nicely, what’s ‘mission: inconceivable’ for a younger youngster, is feasible for an adult; what’s ‘mission: not possible’ for adult people is likely to be doable for a giant(s). A giant twice as large as a typical human may have eight instances the muscle energy, since muscles are three-D, doubling in size, width and height; and thusly 2 x 2 x 2 = eight.

What Do Our Ancestors Say Revisited
Historic Greeks usually attributed numerous massive stone constructions to the Cyclopes, for example. Such large structures are termed the Cyclopean walls since the Cyclopes and solely the Cyclopes could have constructed these constructions. Perseus had them liable for building the partitions of Mycenae, together with the Lion Gate; Proitos attributed them constructing the walls of Tiryns. The medieval Danish historian Saxo Grammaticus cited the Roman ruins as proof that giants should as soon as have walked the Earth. And who constructed the enormous’s Causeway on the Northern Irish Coast

Is this too far out I’m open to other recommendations, but at the least it doesn’t require high-tech alien help, until after all these worldwide mythological giants, like the Cyclopes, were aliens!

Appendix: Just a few notable megalithic monuments.
1) Some unfinished in-situ megaliths.

*Baalbek (Lebanon) has two unfinished stones weighing in at 1000 to 1250 tons apiece.
*There’s an unfinished Egyptian obelisk at Assuan that’s all up comes to roughly 1100 tons.

2) Some completed and transported megaliths.

*Stonehenge: some stones are up to forty tons.
*The Avebury stone circle, England, has as its largest stone one over forty tons.

*The well-known fortress of Mycenae, Greece has stones near a hundred tons in weight.
*The Parthenon in Athens, Greece has a few of its largest stones weighing in at 10 tons.

Pacific Region
*These Easter Island (Rapa Nui to the locals) Moai can weigh up to 70, even one up to 86 tons.

Ancient Egypt
*The Colossi of Memnon are two Egyptian statues of Pharaoh Amenhotep III coming in at 700 tons each.

*Ramesses II (Ramesses the good) was not shy about erecting statues to honour himself. Considered one of his quite a few dozens of monumental statues commissioned to image self (at Luxor) – a hundred tons worth of stone. But that’s featherweight class.

*Ramesses II was only simply getting warmed up. There is a statue at Thebes, Egypt, part of the Ramessum, the mortuary temple of the pharaoh in query, of a thousand tons. Now that is heavyweight status.

*Egyptian obelisks weren’t minuscule. There’s one at 227 tons (Luxor); one at 328 tons (Karnak).
*Great Pyramid at Giza, Egypt is properly referred to as overkill in relation to constructing a tomb. Though the common weight of each stone block is ‘solely’ 2.5 tons, the largest slabs comprising the burial chamber, are available in at 80 tons.

*Aside from the great Pyramid, different Egyptian pyramids, in reality most, if not all other, Egyptian pyramids have some monolithic blocks of over 20 tons, together with monolithic roof slabs, plugs and burial vaults, a few of which weigh in at over one hundred tons.

South and Central America
*These well-known however mysterious Olmec heads in Mesoamerica aren’t trivial works when carved down to some 50 tons all up.

*The Inca metropolis of Machu Picchu, Peru has massive stones half and parcel of its development weighing in from 20 to 50 tons apeice.

*There’s a very famous Aztec calendar stone at Tenochtitlan, Mexico that weighs considerably more than the wall calendar you hold up at residence. Weight, 24 tons.

*Palenque, Mexico is a famous Mayan site, particularly because of Erich Von Daniken. The most important stones on site weigh 12 to 15 tons.

Additional urged readings
Childress, David Hatcher; Know-how of the Gods: The Incredible Sciences of the Ancients; Adventures Unlimited Press, Kempton, Illinois; 2000:

De Camp, L. Sprague; The Ancient Engineers; Ballantine Books, New York; 1974:
De Camp, L. Sprague & De Camp; Catherine C; Citadels of Thriller; Fontana/Collins, London; 1972:

Hancock, Graham; Fingerprints of the Gods: A Quest for the beginning and the tip; Mandarin, London; 1996:

Hancock, Graham & Faiia, Santha; Heaven’s Mirror: Quest for the Lost Civilization; Penguin Books, London; 1999:

National Geographic Society; Mysteries of Mankind: Earth’s Unexplained Landmarks; National Geographic Society, Washington, D.C.; 1992:

National Geographic Society; Mysteries of the Ancient World; National Geographic Society, Washington, D.C.; 1979:

Von Daniken, Erich; Chariots of the Gods ; Souvenir Press, London; 1969:
Von Daniken, Erich; Gods from Outer Area; Souvenir Press, London; 1970:

Additional viewings:
NOVA; Secrets of Lost Empires; PBS/WGBH, Boston; 2006:

NOVA; Secrets and techniques of Lost Empires II; PBS/WGBH, Boston; 2008:
There’s also been dozens of books/videos written/produced particularly about the archaeological mysteries of Stonehenge, ancient Egyptian monuments together with the pyramids, Easter Island, the ruins of Mesoamerica and South America, and many others. Seek the advice of your local library.