By 1844 Receipts Had Reached £258
Liverpool, a port on the north bank of the estuary of the Mersey, was first used as a harbour within the 13th century for sending provides to Eire. Liverpool solely had a population of about 22,000 in 1750 but town grew rapidly within the second half of the century as a result of the slave commerce. By the 1740s Liverpool had eclipsed its rivals Bristol and London, and according to David Richardson, the author of Liverpool and the English Slave Commerce (1994), the port consolidated its position as “the undisputed slaving capital of England and by far the largest slave port in the Atlantic world.”
Daniel Defoe visited Liverpool throughout this interval and remarked: “Liverpool has an opulent, flourishing and increasing commerce to Virginia, and the English island colonies in America. They commerce round the entire island, ship ships to Norway, to Hamburg, and to the Baltic, as additionally to Holland and Flanders; so they’re virtually just like the Londoners, universal merchants. There is no town in England, London excepted, that can equal Liverpool for the fineness of the streets, the fantastic thing about the buildings; most of the homes are all of stone and the remainder (the new half) of brick.”
Being a seaman concerned in the slave-trade was a dangerous activity. Stephen D. Behrendt, carried out a examine of 1,709 muster rolls for Liverpool slave voyages between 1780 and 1807. He found that 17.8 per cent of authentic crew died (10,439 out of 58,778). The time spent on the African coast was significantly dangerous. Though large numbers of men died from drowning, Behrendt discovered that varied types of fevers accounted for nearly all of deaths. Gastrointestinal diseases together with flux, dysentery and diarrhoea accounted for eleven per cent of the sample. Thomas Clarkson, who campaigned in opposition to the slave trade, tried to show that it was highly dangerous for the sailors. He claimed that in Liverpool alone, over 15,165 seaman had been lost since 1771 in the 1,001 ships that had sailed from there to the coast of Africa.
The port of Liverpool became essential in the development of the textile business. By the start of the nineteenth century Liverpool had changed London as the principal port where cotton was imported. To cope with this increased visitors, eight new docks had been constructed between 1815 and 1835.
The early a part of the nineteenth century saw a rapid progress within the trade between Liverpool and Manchester. The success of the Stockton & Darlington railway opened in 1825, satisfied Liverpool merchants equivalent to Joseph Sandars that town needed a new transport system. Sandars formed the Liverpool & Manchester Railway Firm and with the help of William James, recruited George Stephenson as chief engineer.
The Liverpool & Manchester railway was opened on 15th September, 1830. The railway was an important success. In 1831 the company transported 445,047 passengers. Receipts had been £155,702 with profits of £71,098. By 1844 receipts had reached £258,892 with income of £136,688. Throughout this period shareholders were recurrently paid out an annual dividend of £10 for every £100 invested.
The railway increased the importance of Liverpool as a trading centre. A brand new series of docks were constructed, including the Albert and Stanley Docks through the 1840s. Dr. William Ducan argued that this rapid growth triggered considerable problems for the working lessons: “Within the streets inhabited by the working lessons, I imagine stone island nylon tela quilted jacket that the good majority are without sewers, and that where they do exist they’re of a really imperfect type until where the bottom has a pure inclination, due to this fact the surface water and fluid refuse of each type stagnate in the street, and add, especially in sizzling weather, their pestilential affect to that of the more stable filth. With regard to the courts, I doubt whether there is a single courtroom in Liverpool which communicates with the road by an underground drain, the only means afforded for carrying off the fluid dirt being a slender, open, shallow gutter, which sometimes exists, however even this may be very typically choked up with stagnant filth.”
This view was supported by a examine carried out in 1842 by Edwin Chadwick: “Of the deaths which occurred amongst the labouring lessons in Liverpool, it seems that no less than 62% of the total number had been deaths underneath 5 years of age. Even amongst these entered as shopkeepers and tradesmen, no less than 50% died before they attained that period.”
Giant warehouses have been erected in Liverpool and the dock space ultimately spread for 7 miles (11.3 km) along the Mersey Estuary. The growth in size of the port also stimulated the expansion of different industries corresponding to marine engineering, clothes manufacture and food processing. By 1861 the inhabitants of Liverpool had reached 444,000.